Lymphoma is the most common type of blood cancer that affects that develops in the lymphatic system. Lymphoma are of two major types: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lymphoma is caused when lymphocytes, type of white blood cells of the immune system grow and multiply uncontrollably. Cancerous lymphocytes may travel to different parts of the body, including the spleen, blood, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and form a mass called a tumor. The two type of lymphocytes that can develop into lymphoma – B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells). Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and a common subtype of T-cell lymphoma. ALCL consists of only 2% of NHLs and approx. 20% of T-cell lymphomas. ALCL symptoms includes fever, painless swelling of lymph nodes, weight loss, tiredness, backache and excessive night sweats. It is comprised of two sub-types, based on the expression of a protein called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK): ALK positive and ALK negative ALCL
According to National Cancer Institute, in the 2016, an estimated 1,685,210 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in the United States and 595,690 people will die from the disease. NHL is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the US. In 2015, it is estimated that there will be 71,850 new cases of NHL (39,850 men and 32,000 women) and 19,790 deaths from NHL. According to GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates the incidence and mortality rate of NHL is 2.7% and 2.4% respectively.
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Following drugs are being tested for ALCL:
- Alisertib (MLN8237)
- Bortezomib (Velcade)
- Combination of brentuximab vedotin and chemotherapy
- Crizotinib (Xalkori)
The global ALCL therapeutics market is segmented on the basis of route of administration, therapeutic areas and region
Segmentation based on Disease Type
- Primary ALCL
- Relapsed ALCL
Segmentation based on Treatment Type
- Chemotherapy (CHOP) Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone Brentuximab vedotin Pralatrexate
- Radiation therapy
- Stem cell transplant
With the increasing geriatric population and rate of diagnosis will boost the overall market for ALCL therapeutics. Moreover, significant increase in the healthcare spending will boost the ALCL therapeutics market during the forecast period.
Geographically the ALCL therapeutics market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific and MEA region. The areas with the highest incidence of NHL are North America, Europe, and Australasia, as well as several countries in Africa and South America. Also, more than 60% of the world’s new cancer cases occur in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America; 70% of the world’s cancer deaths occur in these regions.
The ALCL can appear on body parts such as skin, organs and other part of the body, they grow slowly and are present on body for longer duration before diagnosis. ALCL that appears on skin is known as primary cutaneous ALCL. Most common types of side effects observed are skin redness and skin irritation is caused. It is being observed that 10 percent primary cutaneous ALCL extends beyond the skin to organ or lymph. Systemic ALCL is parted depending on abnormal form of a protein on their surface called ALK or do not have abnormal form of a protein. These are fast growing and the disease condition in ALK-positive (with abnormal protein) is different from ALK-negative (without abnormal protein). ALK-positive ALCL patients are treated with chemotherapy treatments, patients initially respond to the treatment but relapse within five years, these are found in children’s as well as adults. ALK-negative ALCL patients are treated with stem cell transplantation after remission, these are mostly found in patients above 55 years.
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Some major companies in the ALCL therapeutics market are Pfizer, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Seattle Genetics, Inc., Sareum Holdings PLC, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Celgene Corporation and Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC.